Our Publications

Service areas: EQS Derivation & Implementation,

Deriving site specific Quality Standards for metals

Pete and I have published a paper on an approach for deriving a site specific water EQS for zinc which takes account of both bioavailability and the composition of the local aquatic benthic macroinvertebrate community. This approach has the potential to be important, particularly in cases where costly programmes of measures are considered necessary to achieve compliance with a chemical quality standard, but where ecological quality is not impacted.
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Service areas: Bioavailability of Metals, EQS Derivation & Implementation,

Field validation of the nickel EQS

Pete, Graham, and I have just published a paper on validating the proposed EQS for nickel by a comparison against field evidence from the UK. Compliance with an EQS of 4 μg/L “bioavailable nickel” is highly unlikely to prevent communities achieving good ecological status.
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Service areas: Bioavailability of Metals, EQS Derivation & Implementation,

Ecological Indicators for abandoned metal mines

Metal mining in the UK has occurred for thousands of years and was widespread during the 18th and 19th centuries. This activity has resulted in a legacy of abandoned metal mine sites across the UK. We were recently commissioned by the Environment Agency to undertake a project to investigate whether conventional EQS are suitably protective of aquatic life in waterbodies impacted by abandoned metal mines, or if higher metal concentrations than the EQS can be acceptable in these waterbodies without risk to aquatic life. Importantly, we were asked to explore how these instances could be accommodated within the WFD to enable the status of the water body to be correctly classified. The results of this project are now available to download.
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Service areas: Bioavailability of Metals, EQS Derivation & Implementation,

Effects on iron on ecological communities

Mark and I have been working with the Iron industry to try to understand the effects of iron on aquatic ecosystems. We have been analysing extensive field monitoring data on the quality of invertebrate communities in rivers and relating this to the levels of different forms of iron (total, dissolved, or particulate) that are present.
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Service areas: Bioavailability of Metals, EQS Derivation & Implementation,

Simplifying the implementation of bioavailability-based water quality standards for metals

Graham and I are continuing to work toward the practical implementation of bioavailability based water quality standards for trace metals, in collaboration with European researchers and the European Copper Institute.
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Service areas: Bioavailability of Metals, EQS Derivation & Implementation,

Soil Quality Standards for Trace Elements: Derivation, Implementation, and Interpretation

In 2008 a Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry-sponsored Technical Workshop was held in Sydney, Australia. The book of the deliberations from this workshop has now been published.
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Service areas: Bioavailability of Metals, EQS Derivation & Implementation,

Regulatory Limits for Trace Elements in Soils

Albania and I have just had a chapter published on Regulatory Limits for Trace Elements in soils.
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Adams WJ, Green AS, Ahlf W, Brown SS, Burton GA, Chadwick B, Crane M, Gouget R, Ho KT, Hogstrand C, Reynoldson TB, Ringwood AH, Savitz JD, Sibley PK. 2004.Using sediment assessment tools and a weight of evidence approach. In: Wenning RJ, Batley GE, Ingersoll CG, Moore DW (eds) Use of Sediment Quality Guidelines and Related Tools for the Assessment of Contaminated Sediments. SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL, 163-226.

Cole SC, Comber SDW, Crane M, Davis L-J, Hope S-J, Rule KL, Sweetman A. 2003.Development of Aquatic Quality Standards (QS) for Dioxins. Defra Contract 13332-0, London, UK.

Cole S, Whitehouse P, Harrison R, Holmes D, Zabel T, Johnson I, Crane M, Matthiessen P, Dubourg R. 2003. Derivation of Aquatic Quality Standards for Priority List Substances Not Covered by Existing UK Regulations. Defra Report 6251/1, London, UK.

Crane M. 2003. Proposed development of sediment environmental quality standards under the European Water Framework Directive: A critique. Toxicology Letters 142/3: 195-206. Reproduced in Advances in Pharmacology 52: 235-251.

Crane M, Babut M. 2007. Environmental Quality Standards for Water Framework Directive Priority Substances: Challenges and Opportunities. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 3:290-296.

Crane M, Kwok KWH, Wells C, Whitehouse P, Lui GCS. 2007. Use of field data to support European Water Framework Directive quality standards for dissolved metals. Environmental Science & Technology 41:5014-5021.

Crane M, Watts C, Daginnus K, Worth A. 2008. Possible application of non-testing methods in setting environmental quality standards (EQS). JRC Scientific and Technical Report EUR 23758 EN, European Commission Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy.

Crane M, Whitehouse P, Comber S, Ellis J, Wilby R. 2005. Climate change influences on environmental and human health chemical standards. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 11:289-318.

Maycock D, Peters A. 2009 Derivation of a PNECbiota for pentabromodiphenyl ether. Environment Agency, Bristol, UK. (in press).

Maycock D, Peters A. 2009 Derivation of a PNECbiota for tributyl tin compounds (TBT-ion). Environment Agency, Bristol, UK. (in press).

Merrington G, Peters A, Simpson P, Crane M. 2008 Review of Effects Data for Implementable Environmental Quality Standards for Iron, Manganese, Arsenic and Silver. Science Report, Environment Agency, Bristol, UK. (in press).

Peters A, Merrington G, Crane M. 2008 Estimation of background reference concentrations for metals in freshwaters in the UK. Science Report, Environment Agency, Bristol, UK. (in press).

Peters A, Crane M. 2008 Hexachlorobenzene: Risk Evaluation Report. Euro Chlor, Brussels, Belgium. (in press)

Peters A, Merrington G. 2008 Using Biotic Ligand Models to help implement Environmental Quality Standards for metals under the Water Framework Directive. Science Report SC080021/SR7b, Environment Agency, Bristol, UK.

Peters A. and Crane M. 2008 Biota standards for chemicals: issues and possible solutions. Science Report, Environment Agency, Bristol, UK (in press)

Whitehouse P, Crane M, Grist EPM, O’Hagan A, Sorokin N. 2002. Derivation and Expression of Water Quality Standards: Opportunities and Constraints in Adopting Risk-Based EQS Setting. R&D Technical Report, Environment Agency, Bristol.

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